Bioethics case studies high school
People also read Article. Yukiko Asada et al. Journal of Moral Education Volume 25, - Issue 4.
Published online: 7 Jul Roger Downie et al. Bioscience Education Volume 5, - Issue 1. Published online: 14 Dec Christopher J R Willmott et al. Bioscience Education Volume 3, - Issue 1. Troy D. Sadler et al. It is known that people are not born ethical, but they have a priori conditions for ethical thinking and moral development to be built and introjected along time, and for this reason these must be stimulated. Some authors such as Rego 9 point out the importance of the discussion about moral education in order to break away from the model of imposition and indoctrination which is out of context, archaic and inneffective, and to a large extent the one upon which some teachers still base their teaching of the medical ethics discipline.
Cortina 10 states that when we talk about education, especially moral education, it is necessary to distinguish between indoctrinating and educating in order to understand what is desired out of moral education. For this reason, bioethics is inserted in a wider context because it arises from the demands of society which questions the very legal limits of the practice, connecting to the effective exercise of citizenship itself In addition, bioethics is distinguished from the deontological view for having multi, inter and trans-disciplinary characteristics 6. Still according to him, bioethics has advanced as a new discipline which combines biological knowledge and a system of human values.
Ever since, there has been growing interest on the philosophical foundation of bioethics based on ethics, which shows, on the one hand, the interest of the authors of the area on bioethics for the ethical cornerstones and, on the other hand, the interest awoken in philosophy especially due to ethical issues and the debate on bioethics Kottow 15 considers that bioethics undoubtedly behaves as a social phenomenon and also as a discipline, given its consistent academic presence in regular, departmentalized courses with specialized faculties on different areas.
What was at first an ideal and an intuition by some physicians and scholars from several nations who planned on spreading the interest for this new discipline is now a reality Due to its concern with the correct use of new technologies in the area of medical sciences and with adequate solutions for the moral dilemmas presented by them, the field is considered as applied ethics.
It would, therefore, be a specific branch of moral philosophy, with its own characteristics This way it is noticeable that bioethics has matured as a form of practical moral philosophy in medicine Based on the results of their studies, Boylan and Donahue 18 supply the structure for a practical scenario with concrete suggestions to introduce ethical issues in university curricula.
The idea and the rethinking process of this structure will allow for university students and professors to approach a wide array of ethical issues which may arise in classroom discussions, both in academic disciplines and in professional training.
Some studies, such as the one by Lind 5 , have concluded that medical training does not contribute to the moral development of the students. To Mizukami 20 , teaching is influenced by human development and knowledge is essentially active. The author states that one of the fundamental implications for an individual is that the intelligence is constructed from the exchanges between the organism and its environment and in its actions. This action, in our understanding, is the center of the training process and the social and educational factor which constitutes a condition for the development of the individual.
Currently, the new Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais DCN — National Curricular Directives for the undergraduate medicine courses 21 , put into effect by the Ministry of Education MEC on June 20, , determine that graduating students must be trained to substantiate quality in health care and be guided by their critical thinking, and that professional ethics must be founded on the principles of ethics and bioethics. This is an attempt to guide the development of competencies during medical training, recommending in which way the future professionals should act in respect to their moral behavior 6.
The DCN point out the competencies and abilities expected to be developed by medicine students in their professional training process 9. Its intent is to put forth several perspective proposals in response to a wide array of problems, ranging from the propagation of certain ethical, esthetic and political perspectives to the suggestion of procedures and competencies which must be part of the shared national curricula base There is also the concrete issue of real or apparent lack of interest from the teaching institutions, according to Goergen 19 , on what may or must be done in terms of ethical education.
For the author this derives from current times, in which there is an emergence of conflicts that are inherent of a plural, democratic society which still has not found either consensus around the values nor the disposition to instil in youngsters the values or forms of behavior that are not shared by all.
Upon reflecting on the ethical discourse of the competencies and abilities prescribed by the DCN one may ask: will the technicist trend incorporated in Brazilian education account for the training and moral education of future physicians?
Will they be prepared for the mediation of the conflicts that will happen during their education and later professional activities? Do deontological disciplines such as medical ethics, deontology and forensic medicine bring education on values and moral development to these students? For this reason the need has been considered to emphasize the relevance of moral education, or education on values regarded here as synonyms during professional training, since with its presence it is possible to optimize the creation of social multipliers, especially in the health area It would take seeing the university as a place of permanent exercise of ethics, of critical discussion of conflicts, of guidance for the future and of transmission not only of knowledge but also of judgments of value to the students.
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Competencies are related to intelligence just as disciplines are to knowledge Therefore, specific knowledge organized in the form of disciplines must be rescaled in the perspective of making up an instrument in service of the development of intelligence with autonomy, and therefore, of personal development - a precondition for growth as a citizen and professional To Culver 26 , ethical training must be devised as a means of improving the character of future physicians and endowing the ones who already have it with skills and attitudes to allow them to have the best possible ethical performance.
Correa 14 states, in addition, that bioethics has started contributing for the reflection and public debate on themes related to fundamental values regarding life and science to be introduced in the school curricula of many undergraduate careers — among them health — and in the continuous graduate training of many professionals. In face of what has been shown, this paper aims at 1 identifying how and where bioethics disciplines and themes are situated in the curriculum matrices of the medicine courses in Brazilian universities that have received scores 4 and 5 in the Exame Nacional de Desempenho de Estudantes Enade — National Examination of Student Performance ; verifying which bioethics topics are discussed in undergraduate medicine courses in Brazil; 3 identifying which of these themes have been used in the elaboration of Enade.
Included in the sample are all medicine schools both public and private which have taken part in Enade from to and have obtained scores 4 and 5 in these evaluations. The justification for this type of inclusion is that the conceito preliminar do curso CPC — preliminary concept of courses established by MEC 27 combines eight components that indicate the quality of the course, out of which we list the six most relevant ones for the purposes of this paper:.
Characteristics of the faculty: number of professors with doctorate and masters degrees and full time or part time professors. Indicator of the difference between the expected and observed performance performance difference indicator — IDD. This way, the best teaching institutions in Brazil have been selected according to these criteria. Therefore, this can be considered as the first step, as a sample that reflects the resulting knowledge and experiences, seeking that the HEI courses can be adequately studied.
All universities with public data available on official websites of their respective HEI courses were considered.
A bioethics course for biology and science education students
For this purpose, we analyzed all data related to the pedagogical course projects of the relevant courses PCP , in the curriculum matrices and class planning program contents of these subjects. This research model, according to Bonet 29 , is important because the university is an environment in which academic aspects and everyday practice are interconnected, and at the same time, social, psychological and economic tensions are found.
The analysis technique was defined based on the guidelines set by Minayo and collaborators 30 , according to which in a real-life context and in a concrete case, it is necessary to try to learn about a phenomenon as a whole and describe it in a creative way, seeking to understand and interpret its complexity based on a number of evidences. Such evidence constitutes a database developed throughout research, therefore composing a chain of relevant evidence.
It was also considered that unsurprisingly, discourse related to such concerns suggests a possible crisis of values typical of our society, as well as the need to renew our university practices and curriculum, prioritizing and emphasizing such goals, frequently considered as secondary or inexistent in past and present times, as Correia 14 warns.
Consequently, this study seeks to identify if bioethics courses are being offered in medicine graduate courses in Brazil and how they are being taught in course curriculum matrices, considering the topics and teaching methodologies used. We believed that this report is of extreme relevance, once it responds to new ethical issues permanently incorporated to our reflection, bringing elements to work on the urgent need for teaching renovation and modernization.
According to the e-MEC portal, today there are faculties of medicine registered in Brazil, out of which took part in the triennial Enade and participated in the last triennial, obtaining grading concepts that fluctuated from 1 to 5. An important data is that currently, a specific evaluation type for medicine courses is under analysis. For this purpose, an open public consultation was prepared by INEP, seeking to create evaluation instruments in agreement with the new medicine courses guidelines During the study carried out based on the e-MEC and official HEI websites, we verified that 93 medicine faculties achieved grading 4 and 5 at Enade in these triennials, from which After analyzing the 76 PCP found, we identified that 10 medicine universities had no bioethics courses and that in 66 of them they were being offered as an independent subject or with other specification in the curriculum matrix.
Thirty-two universities made their matrices available on their websites but not their curriculums or program contents. This confirmed three course models found in health graduate programs mentioned by Rego and collaborators 11 : 1 schools that offer only the teaching of professional ethics; 2 schools that offer bioethics teaching within a model based on problems adopted by the faculty and; 3 schools that offer bioethics as a separate course.
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International Relations Ethics Case Studies The Carnegie Council offers this series of 22 case studies for use in college and university classrooms. Each case presents and analyzes an historical example of an ethical dilemma in international affairs. Cases from Air University: the intellecutal and leadership center of the Air Force.
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